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STATE OF NEW YORK 
CONSERV A TlON DEPARTMENT 
WATER RESOURCES COMMISSION 


THE LIMNOLOGY OF ONEI DA LAKE 
AN INTERIM REPORT 


By 


PHILLIP E. GREESON and GEORGE S. MEYERS 
U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



THE LIMNOLOGY OF ONEIDA LAKE 


AN INTERIM REPORT 


by 


Phillip E. Greeson and George S. Meyers 
U.S. Geological Survey 


REPORT OF INVESTIGATION 
RI-8 


Prepared by 
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 


in cooperation with 
NEW YORK STATE CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT 


STATE OF NEW YORK 
CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT 
WATER RESOURCES COMMISSION 


1969 




CONTENTS 


Ab s t r act. . . . . . . . 
Introduction... . 
Acknowledgments.. 
Process of eutrophication... 
Physical factors of Oneida Lake. 
Dimensions. 
His to ry . . . . 
S t ra t if i ca t i on. . 
Waves.... ...... 
Se i ches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Biological characteristics of Oneida Lake.... 
Methods of routine investigations. 
Special studies........... 
Phytoplankton....... 
Chemistry of Oneida Lake.... 
Methods of routine investigations........ 
Spec i a 1 stud i e s. . . . . . . . 
Nutrients. 
General 
Nitrogen and phosphorus... 
Spatial variations........ 
Summary and conclusions... 
G 10 s sa ry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
References............... 


..... ..... ...... .......... .... 


ILLUSTRATIONS 


Fig u re 1. 


Hydrographic map of Oneida Lake...................... 


2. 


Diagram illustrating eutrophication the process of 
ag i ng by eco 1 og i ca 1 success ion. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . 


3 · 


Hypothetical curve of eutrophication..................... 


4. 


phytoplankton distribution 


Hypothetical curve of seasonal 
in a eu t roph i c 1 a ke. . . . . . . . . 


... ...... ..... ..... ........ 


5. 


Graph showing area of lake bottom 
dep th 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


included at various 


6. 


Map showing locations at transects of bottom profiles. 


7. 


Bottom profi 1es. 


8. 


Hydrographic map showing areas where water depth is 
1 4 fee tor 1 e s s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


i i i 


Page 


1 
2 
5 
6 
13 
13 
13 
19 
22 
26 
30 
30 
30 
33 
44 
44 
44 
45 
45 
46 
49 
55 
57 
61 


3 


6 


7 


10 


15 


16 


17 


18 



Figure 


ILLUSTRATIONS (Continued) 


Page 


9. Vertical profiles of water temperature and dissolved 
oxygen during the growing season June - September, 1967... 20 


10. Graph showing mean depth of dissolved oxygen stratification 
during the growing season of 1967......................... 22 


11. Wind roses for Hancock Field, Syracuse, New york............ 23 


12. Sketch illustrating wave of oscillation showing circular 
pattern of water movement in deep water................... 24 


13. Graph showing development of waves on Oneida Lake........... 25 


14. Hydrographic map showing areas where water depth is 30 feet 


or 1 es s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . 27 


15. Graphs showing development of seiche during August 16-17, 
1 966. . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . , . . . . . . . . . , . , . . . . , , . . . , . . 28 


16. Graphs showing harmonic train of seiches during September 
23-26, 1966.......................,.......".,...."..,.,. 29 


17. Map showing location of sampling stations................... 31 


18. Graph showing variations of mean standing crop of 
phytoplankton in Oneida Lake.............................. 37 


19. Graphs showing relative abundances of the major groups of 
algae comprising the phytoplankton of Oneida Lake......... 38 


20. Graph showing longitudinal variations in the mean standing 
crop of phytoplankton during 1967......................... 43 


21. Graphs showing mean variations of total nitrogen and total 
phosphate in Oneida Lake.................................. 50 


22. Graphs showing mean variations of nitrate nitrogen and 
nitrite nitrogen in Oneida Lake........................... 51 


23. Graphs showing mean variations of ammonia nitrogen and 
organic nitrogen in Oneida Lake........................... 52 


- iv - 



TABLES 


Page 


Table 1. Plankton of oligotrophic and eutrophic lakes................ 8 


2. Elements essential for the growth of algae.................. 11 


3. Dimensions of Oneida Lake................................... 14 


4. Vertical profiles of water temperature and dissolved oxygen 
during June through October, 1967......................... 21 


5. Approximate locations of sampling stations on Oneida Lake... 32 


6. Composite list of algae observed in the phytoplankton of 
Oneida Lake from May 1967 through January 1968............ 34 


7. Distribution of phytoplankton organisms of Oneida Lake from 
May 30,1967 through January 17,1968..................... 39 


8. Dominant phytoplankton organisms of Oneida Lake from 
May 30, 1967 through January 17, 1968..................... 41 


9. Essential elements in Oneida Lake........................... 46 


10. Biweekly mean values of the chemical constituents of Oneida 
Lake at all stations from June 6, 1967 to May 8, 1968..... 47 


11. Trace elements in Oneida Lake and their respective 
concen t ra t i on s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 


12. Variations of major ions between surface and bottom during 
period of dissolved oxygen stratification and periods of 
no d i s so 1 ved oxygen s t ra t if i ca t ion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . · · · · · . 53 


13. Mean values of chemical constituents at each sampling 
station on Oneida Lake.................................... 54 


- v - 




THE LIMNOLOGY OF ONEIDA LAKE 
AN INTERIM REPORT 


by 
Phillip E. Greeson 11 
and 
George S. Meyers 
I 


ABSTRACT 


This interim report discusses the general concepts of lake 
eutrophication and presents the findings of the first year of field 
investigations on the eutrophication of Oneida Lake, New York. Routine 
biological and chemical data revealed that the lake has become eutrophic 
both through the natural processes of lake aging and from the inflow of 
nutrient-rich water from the fertile drainage basin. The four most 
important factors affecting the biological activities within the lake 
are: (1) the high fertility of the drainage basin, (2) the physical 
position and shallowness of the lake, (3) mixing of the water by wind 
action, and (4) the inclusion of bottom sediments in the recycling of 
nutrient materials. 


II Limno1ogist, u.s. Geological Survey, Albany, New York 

I Biologist, U.S. Geological Survey, Albany, New York 


- 1 - 



INTRODUCTION 


Oneida Lake, with a surface area of 79.8 square miles (206.7 square 
kilometers), is the largest lake wholly within New York State, and is used 
almost exclusively for recreational purposes; it also serves as an important 
link in the New York State Barge Canal System (fig. 1). During the summer 
months, Oneida Lake characteristically exhibits a tremendous growth of 
planktonic, blue-green algae (see Glossary). The production of these 
organisms is so great that the recreational uses of the lake are hindered, 
and the decomposition of algae along the shore becomes esthetically 
unpleasant for lakeside residents. 


Although limited control measures for excessive algal growths are 
practical in certain lakes, the size of Oneida Lake prohibits the practical 
and economic justification for any of the known methods, such as use of 
a1gacides, mechanical harvesting, or biological grazers. There are many 
gaps in the understanding of lake processes and interactions. With 
continued study, knowledge increases, relationships are established, and 
new approaches for lake management become evident. 


With this in mind, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological 
Survey, in cooperation with the Division of Water Resources of the New York 
State Conservation Department, initiated in April, 1967 a 5-year program to 
study the eutrophication of Oneida Lake. 


The objectives of the program are to provide: (1) physical and 
chemical descriptions of Oneida Lake and its drainage basin, and (2) an 
analysis of the interactions between the biology and chemistry of the lake 
which includes those aspects of basin hydrology, geochemistry, climatology, 
and cultural activity that may be of importance to the lake processes. 


The basis of the study is the determination of the water, mineral, and 
organic nutrient balances of the entire lake system, including the 
contribution from: (1) streamflow, (2) precipitation, (3) ground-water 
inflow, and (4) introduced pollution. The study also includes: (1) an 
evaluation of the chemical interactions and biological effects within the 
lake, (2) a description of the type and quantity of organisms present as 
illustrated by space and time variations, and (3) an attempt to define 
those chemical and physical conditions of the lake system which appear to 
give rise to or be associated with the various biological changes within 
the lake. 


In essence, this project critically examines Oneida Lake and its 
drainage basin in terms of a dynamic system....one of causes and effects. 
By first describing and understanding the numerous and various scientific 
bases, it may then be possible in the future to establish a lake 
management program that will ease the algal problem. 


This report describes the general concept of the process of 
eutrophication and reports the activities of the first year of field 
investigations. Emphasis is placed on the physical, chemical and 
biological descriptions of Oneida Lake. 


- 2 - 



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This interim report accompanies a report by Pearson and Meyers (1969) 
on the description of the Oneida Lake drainage basin in terms of its 
physical setting and chemical contributions to the lake. 


- 4 - 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 


The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of many persons 
during various phases of the study. Special appreciation is extended to 
Mr. Henry C. Carroll, New York Division of Water Resources; Dr. John 
Forney, Cornell University Biological Field Station; Dr. Frederick J. 
Pearson, Jr., U.S. Geological Survey; Mr. Charles C. Knapp, Bridgeport, 
New York; and Mr. Millard Rogers, Brewerton, New York. 


This report was written under the direction of Gara1d G. Parker, 
former District Chief, and under the immediate supervision of Kenneth I. 
Darmer, Chief, Hydrologic Studies Section, U.S. Geological Survey, Water 
Resources Division, New York District. 


- 5 - 



PROCESS OF EUTROPHICATION 


Eutrophication is the term applied to the mechanisms and inter- 
relationships of the highly complex processes that contribute to the aging 
and eventual extinction of lakes, streams, and estuaries. More simply, 
eutrophication is the natural process of aging of water bodies, the rate 
of which may be accelerated by cultural activities of man. Figure 2 shows 
that eutrophication consists of the gradual progression (termed ecological 
succession) from one life stage into another. 


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Oligotrophic lake 


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Mesotrophlc lake 
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Figure 2.--Eutrophication - the process of aging 
by ecological succession. 


Based on the degree of nourishment or productivity, the youngest 
stage of the life cycle is called an oligotrophic lake. At some point in 
the succession, the lake becomes a mesotrophic lake and then a eutrophic 
lake. The final life stage before the climax extinction is a pond, marsh, 
or swamp. 


As a lake passes through each stage of life, the degree of enrichment 
by nutritive materials increases. In general, a Take will serve as a trap 
for nutrients originating in the surrounding drainage basin and entering 
with the runoff through streams and tributaries, with precipitation, and 
with ground-water inflow. These entrapped nutrients are recycled during 
each growing season; they are used and reused by aquatic vegetation. 
After the concentration of nutrients has become sufficient, a continual 
supply from the drainage basin is usually not required for sustaining 
continued plant growth at a high rate of production. It is believed that 


- 6 - 



after an initial stimulus, the recycling of nutrients within a lake might 
be adequate to sustain highly productive conditions for a period of years 
(Fruh, 1967). Figure 3 shows that when a lake has reached the eutrophic 
stage, the changes toward a greater degree of aging are hastened. 


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Figure 3.--Hypothetica1 curve of eutrophication. 
(Modified from Hasler, 1947.) 


Enrichment and sedimentation are the principal contributors to the 
aging process, which progresses as nutrients and sediments are transported 
into the lake. The shore vegetation utilizes part of the nutrients, grows 
abundantly, and in turn, traps the sediment. As the years go by, the lake 
fills in, not only over its entire bottom by plants and sediments, but also 
by the invasion of shore vegetation. 


As the aging and filling-in continues, the lake's shore encroaches 
upon the water, the nutrient content increases, plants grow abundantly, 
and silt, vegetation, and decaying organic matter build up the bottom. 
The lake eventually becomes dry land. The extinction of the lake is, 
therefore, a result of enrichment, productivity, decay, and sedimentation. 


- 7 - 



A eutrophic lake is characterized by a high content of dissolved 
nutrients and an abundance of aquatic organisms. Plants, particularly 
algae, are of first concern because they utilize the dissolved inorganic 
salts (nutrients) directly from the water, and become the primary 
producers. 


The algae of concern are mostly microscopic and free-floating forms 
called phytoplankton. In an oligotrophic lake, the phytoplankton are 
usually low in total numbers but rich in variety of forms, whereas the 
phytoplankton of an eutrophic lake are represented by a large number of 
a few forms. Table 1 indicates the differences in phytoplankton 
associated with these two types of lakes. 


Table 1.--P1ankton of oligotrophic and eutrophic lakes 
(After Rawson, 1956.) 


01 i go t roph i c Lake Eutrophic Lake 
Quant i ty Poor Rich 
Variety Many species Few species 
Distribution To great depths Upper 1 ayer 
Diurnal migration Extensive L i m i ted 
Water-blooms Very rare Frequent 
Characteristic algal Ch 10 rophyta Cyanophyta 
groups and genera (Green algae) (Blue-green algae) 
Staurastrum Anabaena 
OR A p hanizomenon 
Diatomaceae Microc y stis 
(D i a tom s ) Diatomaceae 
Tabe 11 a ria (D i atoms) 
Cyc 1 0 te 11 a Me 1 0 s i ra 
Chrysophyta Fra q i 1aria 
(Ye 11 ow-b rown algae) Stephanodiscus 
Dinobryon Asterione11a 


A eutrophic lake is generally characterized by the presence of diatoms 
(Baci11ariophyceae) during the late fall, winter, and spring with numbers 
being greatest during the spring. Green algae (Chlorophyta) become 
dominant during late spring but decrease with the oncome of the blue-green 
algae (Cyanophyta), which are typical of the summer during maximum temper- 
ature and light conditions. If all factors are favorable, the blue-green 
algae grow abundantly to the point of bloom proportions. 


- 8 - 



An algal bloom (also referred to as "bloom," "water bloom", or "water 
b1ossom") is the relatively rapid increase in the total number of 
phytoplankton per unit time to the extent that their presence hinders the 
utility of a body of water for whatever the intended use. More simply, an 
algal bloom is the overabundance of phytoplankton. The concept of an 
algal bloom is relative and dependent upon its immediate effect on a 
particular body of water. 


The life (metabolic) processes of algae utilize the nutrients in the 
surrounding medium; with the continued increase in the size of an algal 
population, there is a progressive decrease of available nutrients. At 
some point, one or more of the nutrients may become depleted, consequently 
the growth process of the algae ceases. Thus, other conditions being 
suitable, the maximum size of an algal bloom or the maximum population 
that a lake can support is dependent upon the availability of nutritive 
ma te ria 1 s. 


Characteristically, a eutrophic lake contains an adequate quantity 
of nutrients to support an algal bloom, which generally attains a maximum 
size during early to mid-summer. Subsequent to the initial bloom the 
population decreases in size to a more or less constant level. Secondary 
blooms may occur sporadically during the growing season, and a second 
major bloom may occasionally occur prior to the approach of cooler water 
temperatures during the fall (fig. 4). 


As indicated, the nutrients that support algal growths in lakes 
originate in the surrounding drainage basin and enter primarily with 
surface runoff; therefore, the more fertile the soil of the basin, the 
more abundant are the nutrients. 


A nutrient is any substance that is necessary for the continuation 
of growth, for repair of tissue, or for reproduction. Any chemical 
element or compound that is required for the normal and healthy existence 
of an alga is considered to be a nutrient. Those elements that are 
required in large quantities are known as macrometabo1ites (macronutrients 
or major nutrients), while those needed in very minute quantities are 
called micrometabo1ites (micronutrients or minor nutrients). The 
micrometabo1ites are generally those essential elements that occur in 
trace quantities in the environment. 


Table 2 is a composite list of the 21 essential elements that in 
some chemical combination are known to be required for the sustenance of 
algae. The minimum requirements for essential elements are very vaguely 
understood, but table 2 partially lists those minimum concentrations 
reported in the literature. 


The causes of eutrophication are not fully understood; the cure for 
eutrophication is still to be developed. In meeting, defining, and 
attempting to solve the problem, one must look at the entire process as 
a dynamic system that is gradually undergoing change. The complexity of 
environmental relationships and the extent of internal biological 


- 9 - 



EXPLANATION 


Green algae 


Initial bloom 


Dominant type of phytoplankton present 


1 


Blue-green algae 


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Figure 4.--Hypothetica1 curve of seasonal phytoplankton 
distribution in a eutrophic lake. 


interactions dictate that the changes of a lake be of a progressive and more 
or less predictable manner...a system of causes and effects. As one of the 
numerous influencing factors changes, a response in the lake follows. Thus, 
at any given moment, a lake is a balanced entity. 


Eutrophication is the inevitable process of lake aging. It is a 
process that probably wiJ1 never be ful1y controlled, but the efforts of 
many investigators may result some day in a retarding effect, and the 
utility of many lakes will be greatJy improved. 


- 10 - 



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- 12 - 



PHYSICAL FACTORS OF ONEIDA LAKE 


Dimensions 


Oneida Lake lies about 11 miles north of Syracuse in Oneida and Oswego 
Counties, and is the largest lake wholly within New York State. The lake is 
regulated by a Tainter-gate dam constructed in 1910 on the Oneida River at 
Caughdenoy, about 1.6 miles (2.6 kilometers) downstream from Brewerton, the 
mouth of the lake. The lake drains to the west through the Oneida and 
Oswego Rivers into Lake Ontario at Oswego. 


Table 3 shows that the main axis of the lake is 20.9 miles (33.6 kilo- 
meters) in length, extending from the State Highway 13 bridge at Sylvan 
Beach on the east to the u.S. Highway 11 bridge in Brewerton on the west. 
The maximum width is 5.5 miles (8.8 kilometers) and the average width is 
3.8 miles (6.1 kilometers). 


Oneida Lake has a surface area of 79.8 square miles (206.7 square 
kilometers) at the normal summer stage of 369 feet (112 meters) about mean 
sea level. The shores are uniformly low, sandy, and, in places, wooded and 
swampy. On the north shore are the villages of Constantia, Bernhards Bay, 
Cleveland, and North Bay. The vi 11ages of Bridgeport and Lakeport are 
located on the south shore. The 54.7 miles (88.0 kilometers) of shoreline 
are dotted with summer cottages and fishing camps. 


The lake is shallow, with an average depth of 22.3 feet (6.8 meters) 
and a maximum depth of 55 feet (16.8 meters) near the north shore off 
Cleveland. The development of volume (dV) or the index of bottom uniformity 
is 1.2 (see Glossary) indicating that the lake bottom is slightly concave 
(fig. 5). 


Oneida Lake, as most lakes, is deeper toward its source (on the east) 
and shallower toward its mouth (on the west). Numerous shoal areas are 
located throughout the lake. Figure 6 shows the location of five bottom 
profiles illustrated in figure 7. 


About 25.7 percent of the lake bottom consists of shoal areas or all 
of the lake bottom shallower than 14 feet (4.3 meters). This depth, shown 
in figure 8, is considered to be the least depth that will interfere with 
navigation. 


Because the lake is shallow, the waters are readily warmed during the 
spring and summer, and with the availability of abundant nutrients, the 
phytoplankton find particularly favorable conditions for luxuriant growth. 


History 


Oneida Lake was preceded by a large, late glacial lake, Lake Iroquois, 
which was also the ancestor of Lake Ontario and the Finger Lakes of central 
New York. Upon the wastage of the continental glacier, the St. Lawrence 
lowland was opened and Lake Iroquois was drained to the east by way of the 
Mohawk valley to the Hudson valley (Muller, 1965). One of the undrained 


- 13 - 



Table 3.--Dimensions of Oneida Lake 


NOTE: (See Glossary for definition of terms.) 


Factor Value or remark 


Area 


Drainage area..................... 1,382 sq mi (3,579 sq km) 
Surface area...................... 79.8 sq mi (206.7 sq km) 
Shoal area........................ 20.5 sq mi (53.1 sq km) or 
25.7 percent 


Length.................................... 20.9 mi (33.6 km) 
Axis, long................................ WNW to ESE 
Fetch..................................... 20 mi (32 km) 
Prevailing winds.......................... westerly to northwesterly 


Width 


Max i mum wid th . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 mi (8.8 km) 
Mean wid th . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8 mi (6. 1 km) 
Depth 
Maximum depth.................... . 55.0 ft ( 16.8 m) 
Mean dep th . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.3 ft (6.8 m) 
Shoal depth...................... . 14.0 ft (4.3 m) 


Volume (at 369 ft stage).................. 496 x 10 8 cu ft 
(140 x 10 7 cu m) 
Development of volume..................... 1.2 
Length of shoreline....................... 54.7 mj (88.0 km) 
Deve 1 opmen t of sho re 1 i ne. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1. 7 


Stage 


Normal summer stage............... 369 ft (112 m) 
Normal winter stage............... 366 ft (111 m) 
Effluent discharge, mean 
(............... 1,571 million ga110nslday 
(59.5 x 10 7 cu m/day) 
Flow - t h r 0 ugh time......................... 2 35 day s 



I u.s. Geological Survey, 1967 (based on 29 years of record). 


depressions became Oneida Lake. Radiocarbon dating by Karrow and others 
(1961) showed that Lake I roquois existed for about 2,000 years, from 12,500 
to 10,500 years ago. Oneida Lake, therefore, has been in existence for about 
10,000 years, and its 1,382 square miles (3,579 square kilometers) of water- 
shed was once the bottom of an inland fresh-water sea. 


The significance of this physiographic setting is that a large part of 
the nutrients entering from the drainage basin become entrapped within the 
lake and, ultimately, become a part of the bottom sediments. Therefore, 
part of the bottom sediments with the accumulated nutrients of Lake Iroquois 


- 14 - 



Depth, in meters 


18 


200 


70 


180 


160 
60 

 
\ 
\ 140 
\ 
Depth of \ 
50 shoal area \ 
\ (/) 
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Depth, in feet 
Figure 5.--Area of 1 ake bottom included at various depths. 
- 15 - 



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Figure 6.--Transects of bottom profiles as shown in figure 7. 


are now the fertile soils of the drainage basin of Oneida Lake. Drainage 
from these lands brings into the lake an abundance of soluble minerals and 
dissolved organic materials (Pearson and Meyers, 1969), whic
 become 
nutritive matter for plants and thus enrich or fertilize the water of the 
lake, making it a more favorable culture medium for aquatic vegetation. 


Oneida Lake, un1 ike most eutrophic lakes whose aging process is 
accelerated by the introduction of municipal and industrial wastes, has 
become eutrophic through natural events. In perspective, the contribution 
of nutrients into Oneida Lake from cultural activities such as waste 
discharges and agricultural runoff is small; while, within the framework 
of existing knowledge, it appears that nutrients from natural sources alone 
are sufficient to support tremendous quantities of bloom-type algae. The 
lake has been aging for about 10,000 years and will continue to age for 
many years to come. The natural rate of aging (eutrophication) can be a 
very slow process. 


It is conceivable that Oneida Lake was eutrophic from the start; it 
appears, however, that it certainly has been eutrophic for at least 350 
years. In the early 1600 ' s, Samuel D. Champlain, believed to be the first 
white man to see Oneida Lake, described its condition as being what is now 
known as eutrophic. In 1809, James Fenimore Cooper described the lake as, 


- 16 - 



A 


South Bay 


B 


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Figure 7.--Bottom profiles. Transects as shown in figure 6. 


- 17 - 





 

 
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- 18 - 


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"a broad, dark colored body of water, unwholesome to drink and strongly 
blended with dark particles which the boatman called lake b10ssoms" (after 
N.Y.S. Conservation Department, 1947). These same "1ake b10ssoms" are 
evidenced today in Oneida Lake. 


Stratification 


A lake in the temperate zone will generally undergo seasonal variations 
of temperature throughout the water column. These variations, with accom- 
panying phenomena of thermal stratification, are perhaps the most influential 
controlling factors within a lake and are the substructure upon which the 
entire biological framework rests. 


Generally and briefly, a lake is homothermous during the spring. As the 
air temperatures rise, the upper layers of water warm and are mixed with the 
lower layers. By late spring the differences in thermal resistance cause the 
mixing to cease and the lake approaches the thermal stratification of the 
summer season. During this period, the warm upper layer of water (the 
epi1imnion) is isolated from the cold lower layer (the hypo1 imnion) by the 
thermocline. When thermal stratification becomes established, the lake 
enters the summer stagnation period, so named because the hypolimnion 
becomes stagnated. 


With the approach of cooler air temperatures during the fall season, 
the temperature of the epi1 imnion decreases. Successive cooling through the 
thermocline to the hypolimnion results in a total homothermous condition. 
The lake then enters the fall circulation period (sometimes referred to as 
"fa11 turnover") and is again subjected to mixing. The lake remains 
somewhat homothermous during the winter and into the spring. 


The most important phase of the thermal regime of a lake from the 
standpoint of eutrophication is the summer stagnation period. The 
hypolimnion, by virtue of its stagnation, becomes the zone of entrapment 
for inflowing materials and for decaying plant and animal matter, thus 
decreasing the availability of nutrients for algae during the critical 
growing season. The hypolimnion becomes anaerobic, or devoid of oxygen, 
because of its increased content of highly oxidizable material and its 
separation from the atmosphere. In the absence of oxygen, the conditions 
for chemical reduction become favorable (Hasler, 1947) and a part of the 
chemical constituents of the bottom sediments are released into solution. 
During the fall circulation period, a lake becomes mixed and the nutrients 
are redistributed throughout the water column for reuse during the 
following growing season. 


Oneida Lake, unlike a typical eutrophic lake, does not thermally 
stratify during the summer but did exhibit near anaerobic conditions in the 
lower layers of water during the growing season of 1967. Figure 9 shows 
that the water temperature gradually decl ined from surface to bottom with 
a mean difference of only 4.5 0 Celsius. Dissolved oxygen, however, 
stratified sharply at an average depth of about 30 feet (9 meters), below 
which concentrations averaged 3.35 mg/1 (milligrams per 1 iter). A low 
concentration of 0.77 mg/1 was recorded on July 27 (table 4). 


- 19 - 



EXPLANA TI ON 


Mean variation of all stations 


Maximum observed variation 


Minimum observed variation 


o 


o 


'3 10 
" 
m ,,' +-' 
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Q) .. , Q) 
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Temperature, in degrees Celsius 
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2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 
Dissolved oxygen, in milligrams per liter 


Figure 9.--Vertica1 profiles of water temperature and dissolved oxygen 
during the growing season June - September 1967. 


The lake underwent an oxygen stratification with the start of increased 
phytoplankton production and accompanying increase of oxidizable material. 
Figure 10 shows the depth of stratification, which fluctuated with changes 
in phytoplankton production. 


- 20 - 



Table 4.--Vertica1 profiles of water temperature and dissolved oxygen, 
June through October 1967 
Depth Temp. D.O. Depth Temp. D.O. Depth Temp. D.O. 
(f t) (Oc) (mg/1 ) ( ft) (OC) (mg/1) ( ft) (OC) (mg/1 ) 
A. June 6 B. June 13 C. June 20 
0 19.4 9.58 0 23.5 8. 19 0 22.0 7.75 
10 17.5 9.52 10 21 . 1 8.45 10 21 .4 7.64 
20 15.5 9.09 20 17.7 7.74 20 19.9 6.80 
30 13.6 7.64 30 15.8 6.46 30 16.4 4.29 
40 12.6 6.33 40 13.6 4.33 40 13.8 3.56 
D. June 27 E. June 30 F. Ju 1 Y 
0 22.4 9.05 0 20.8 9.33 0 22.4 8.33 
10 20.8 8.79 10 20.8 9.33 10 21 .5 8.05 
20 20. 1 8.08 20 20.8 9.22 20 21 .0 8.00 
30 18.9 6.63 30 20.4 9. 19 30 21 .0 7.81 
40 17.0 4.83 40 17. 1 2.22 40 18.6 5.05 
G. July 4 H. July 10 I. July 14 
0 21 .6 9.43 0 25.2 9.82 0 24.3 7.52 
10 21 .5 14.72 10 22.9 8.78 10 23.5 7.36 
20 21 .5 11.17 20 22.2 8. 12 20 22.8 6.22 
30 20.4 8. 11 30 21 .8 7. 17 30 21 .5 4.78 
40 18.9 6.37 40 21.0 4.71 40 20.4 3.24 
J. July 18 K. July 27 L. August 1 
0 25. 1 9.00 0 25.0 9.57 0 24.8 8.85 
10 23.0 10.66 10 23.2 9.07 10 23.9 9. 17 
20 23.0 8.21 20 22.7 8. 12 20 23.2 7.66 
30 20.5 3.02 30 22.4 7. 18 30 23.0 7.25 
40 18.3 1 . 12 40 17.6 .77 40 21 .9 6.77 
M. August 10 N. August 17 o. August 22 
0 23.5 10.09 0 23.8 10.09 0 24.0 8. 14 
10 23.5 9. 13 10 23.0 9.45 10 23.0 8.55 
20 23.5 9.22 20 22.6 8.69 20 22.5 8. 13 
30 23.5 9. 13 30 22. 1 7.89 30 22.5 7.57 
40 21 .6 1 .07 40 21 .2 2.70 40 21 .8 1 . 16 
P. September 27 Q. October 9 R. October 30 
0 18. 1 9.92 0 15.8 9.84 0 11 .0 10.20 
10 17.9 9.68 10 15.8 9.84 10 11 .0 10.20 
20 17.5 8.97 20 15.8 9.84 20 11 .0 10.00 
30 17.5 8.66 30 15.8 9.70 30 11 .0 10.00 
40 17.2 7.66 40 15.8 9.54 40 11 .0 9.80 


- 21 - 



o 


Surface 


o 


5 


2 


10 


4 
(f) Aerobic zone 
Q; 
Q) 
E 
<:: 
-<= 
C. 
Q) 
0 
8 


15 


10 


Q) 

 
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20 -, 
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30 


Level of dissolved oxygen stratification 


35 


12 


II 


18 


2 


27 


3 


10 
September 


40 
17 


June 


July 


August 


1967 


Figure 10.--Mean depth of dissolved oxygen stratification 
during the growing season of 1967. 


Because of possible chemical reduction in the lower layer of water and 
the bottom sediments, and the lack of thermal stratification, nutrients are 
continua11y available in Oneida Lake for recycling and for the growth of 
phytoplankton. 


Waves 


One of the principal mechanisms preventing thermal stratification in 
Oneida Lake and, perhaps, the single most important factor affecting the 
chemical recycling processes of the lake is wind-generated wave action. 
Because the long axis of the lake lies in a nearly east-west direction, 
Oneida Lake is constantly subjected to mixing by the prevailing westerly 
and north-westerly winds (fig. 11). 


Data from the u.s. Weather Bureau at Hancock Field in Syracuse (U.S. 
Department of Commerce, 1967) show that during 1967 the average wind 
velocity was 10.6 miles per hour (4.74 meters per second), creating an 
average wave height of 2.00 feet (0.61 meter) on the lake. During the 
growing season of June through September, the average wind velocity was 
9.1 miles per hour (4.07 meters per second), resulting in an average wave 
height of 1.48 feet (0.45 meter). 


- 22 - 



A 


W30.3 


E 6.6 


8 


E 10,9 


W35.8 


S 12.8 


Figure 11.--Wind roses for Hancock Field, Syracuse, New York, 
showing percentage of time that the wind was 
recorded from each direction: 
A. Growing season, 
June - September, 1967 
B. Calendar year, 1967. 
(Data from U.S. Department of Commerce, 1967.) 


- 23 - 



According to Welch (1952, after Stevenson, 1852), maximum wave height, 
Hmax, in meters or the maximum vertical distance between crest and trough 
(fig. 12) is proportional to the square root of the fetch, F, in kilometers, 
during optimum wind conditions. The fetch is the downward distance from 
shore to the location of the wave in question and is equal to a maximum of 
20 miles (32 kilometers) for Oneida Lake (table 3). By the formula, 
Hmax = 1 /3 -fF , 
the maximum wave height that can theoretically occur on Oneida Lake was 
determined to be 6.17 feet (1.88 meters). The actual maximum wave height 
probably is slightly lower, in the order of about 6 feet (1.8 meters). 


Wind 
 
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of water movement in deep water. 
(L w = wave length, H = wave height, 
a = wave amplitude.) 


Actual wave height is dependent upon sustained wind velocity (W v )' 
in meters per second, and is calculated by the formula, 
, 2 
H = (O.26/g) (W v ), 
where g is the acceleration of gravity (for example, 9.809 meters per second 
per second) (after Sverdrup and others, 1942). Figure 13 shows the relation- 
ship between wave height and wind velocity, and indicates that the maximum 
theoretical wave height on Oneida Lake can be produced by a persistent 
westerly wind of about 20 miles per hour (8.96 meters per second). Wind 
velocities greater than this were recorded on 21.3 percent of the days 
during the growing season of 1967 (U.S.. Department of Commerce, 1967). 


- 24 - 



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Figure 13.--Deve10pment of waves on Oneida Lake. 


Wave length, lw, is the horizontal distance from crest to crest or 
from trough to trough. Theoretically, the wave height may obtain one- 
seventh of the wave length (Dapples, 1959), but, generally, there exists 
sufficient departure from the theoretical form to cause the wave to 
collapse before this height is reached. In Oneida Lake, however, which 
is shallow and interrupted by islands and shoal areas, there is a tendency 
for the wave length to be shortened, thus compacting the waves. The result 
is to approach the theoretical ratio of wave length to wave height, 
probably in the order of 10 to 1 (lw : H = 10 1). A wave length of about 
62 feet (18.8 meters), therefore, can accompany the maximum wave height of 
6.17 feet (1.88 meters) in the open spaces of Oneida Lake. 


Individual water particles within a wave are considered to revolve in 
circles (fig. 12). The effect is to produce a movement of water. With 
increased depth below the surface, according to Dapples (1959), the diameter 
of circular motion decreases exponentially and diminishes at a depth approx- 
imately equal to the wave length. In addition, Dapples implies that 
effective mixing occurs to about one-half this depth or to a depth equal to 
about one-half of the wave length. 


- 25 - 



With a wave length of about 62 feet (18.8 meters), effective mixing by 
wave action occurs to a depth of about 31 feet (9.45 meters) in Oneida Lake. 
The significance of this depth was shown during the summer of 1967 when 
dissolved oxygen sharply stratified at an average depth of about 30 feet 
(9 meters). 


Accordingly, the importance of bottom sediments and their contained 
chemical nutrients is greatly accentuated because 52 square miles (134 
square kilometers) or 65 percent of the lake bottom is shallower than 
30 feet (9 meter$) and can be subjected to mixing with the overlying water 
(fig. 14). 


Seiches 


Additional water mixing and the partial horizontal transfer of nutrient 
material within Oneida Lake are produced by seiches. A seiche (also called 
a standing wave) is the oscillation of water about one or more nodal points. 
It is a localized and periodic shift of the water level in which the water 
particles advance and return in the same path rather than travel in a 
circular motion. 


A persistent westerly wind on Oneida Lake will push the water of the 
lake to the east. When the wind subsides, the lake surface rebounds with 
an alternating rise and fall. The amplitude rapidly diminishes. 


Seiches are quite common in Oneida Lake (figs. 15 and 16) and the 
displacement of water may exceed 1.6 feet (49 centimeters) during a seiche 
period of 2.4 hours. The full extent of their influence on the processes 
within the lake is still to be determined. 


- 26 - 




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Recording made at outlet of Oneida Lake at 
Brewerton: A. Water stage. B. Wind 
velocity and wind direction as 
indicated by arrows. 


- 28 - 



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- 29 - 



BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ONEIDA LAKE 


Methods of Routine Investigations 


Routine field investigations of the phytoplankton of Oneida Lake were 
started in May, 1967 and included weekly sampling of phytoplankton for 
qualitative and quantitative evaluations. Figure 17 shows the 15 sampling 
stations and table 5 gives their approximate locations. 


Phytoplankton samples were treated upon collection with 40-percent 
formaldehyde solution for preservation, with a concentrated solution of 
cupric sulfate for maintaining color of cells, and with a 20-percent 
detergent solution for prevention of coagulation of settled material. The 
resultant solution was of a 3 to 4 percent concentration. Straight water 
samples were used for the quantitative evaluations, and net samples or 
concentrates were used for qualitative identifications. 


A Sedgwick-Rafter counting cell and a Whipple ocular micrometer were 
employed for counting at 100X magnification. A 21X objective and a 
"dynazoom" lens were used for scanning fields and for greater magnification. 
The counting cell was filled 3 times from each sample, counted and the 
results averaged. Twenty to 100 fields were normally counted, depending 
on the number of algal cells present. When concentrations were too thick 
for proper counting, samples were diluted with distilled water and counts 
repeated. Final counts were expressed in number of cells per milliliter 
of sample. 


Temporary wet mounts of sample concentrates were used for identifi- 
cations. Diatoms (Baci11ariophyceae) were cleared by the method of Prescott 
(1962). Identifications to species were made when possible. 


Because microscopic evaluations of phytoplankton are very time 
consuming, attempts are now being made to determine the applicability of 
correlating phytoplankton cell counts with chlorophyll concentrations and 
total suspended matter (termed total seston). Additional efforts are being 
made to determine the feasibility of using remote sensing (for example, 
aerial photography) for evaluating phytoplankton populations both 
qualitatively and quantitatively. The results of these studies will be in 
the final report. 


Special Studies 


Three major special studies have been and are being made in addition 
to the routine sampling. Because most of these studies are of a continuing 
nature encompassing 2 to 3 years of investigation, the detailed results will 
be included in the final report. Following is an annotated listing of the 
special biological studies
 


- 30 - 



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Table 5.--Approximate locations of sampling stations on Oneida Lake 


Station 
number 


8 


Location 
75°45 I W, about 1 mile north of south shore (South Bay) 


9 


75°45 I W, mid lake at Buoy 107-F1W 


10 75°45 I W, about mile south of north shore (North Bay) 


11 75°50 I W, about mile north of south shore (Lakeport Bay) 


12 75°50 I W, mid1ake at Buoy 117-FIW 


13 75°50 I W, about mile south of north shore 


14 75°55 I W, about mile north of Shackelton Point 


15 75°55 I W, mid1ake at Buoy 123-FIW (Shackelton Shoals) 


16 75°55 I W, about mile south of north shore 


17 76°00 I W, about mile north of south shore (Maple Bay) 


18 76°00 I W, mid1ake at Buoy 127-FIW 


19 76°00 I W, about 1 mile south of north shore midway 
between Little Island and Long Island 


20 about geographical center of Lower South Bay 


21 76°05 I W, mid1ake at Buoy 134-FIR 


22 about geographical center of Big Bay 


1. During the spring, summer and fall of 1967, bottom samples were 
obtained from stations 8 through 10, 14 through 16, and 20 through 22. 
Samples were preserved at time of collection, and later examined for 
contained macrobenthic organisms. A continuation of bentha1 sampling 
will be made during the summers of 1968 and 1969 to establish short-term 
yearly changes and to provide comparison data for an extensive 
bentho10gica1 study made by Baker (1916 and 1918). 


2. Ground collections and aerial surveys of higher aquatic plants are 
being made to delineate the extent of vegetation beds and to determine the 
degree of their importance in the lake community. Similar collections and 
surveys are being made of the bentha1 algae (for example, attached and 
filamentous forms). If and when the phytoplankton populations of Oneida 
Lake are controlled, the importance of higher plants and bentha1 algae may 
be greatly accentuated because of their role as primary producers. 


- 32 - 



3. Diurnal (24-hour) studies are being conducted routinely at station 
15 to correlate the seasonal variations of phytoplankton productivity with 
changes in the physical and chemical environments. 


Phytoplankton 


Ninety-seven species of algae were observed in the phytoplankton of 
Oneida Lake during 1967 (table 6). Their types and distribution followed 
the general pattern for a eutrophic lake. Figure 18 shows that the green 
algae (Chlorophyta) were the dominant forms when the investigation was 
started in May. These were replaced by the blue-green algae (Cyanophyta) 
during late June. Subsequent to the initial bloom, the population declined 
until a second bloom occurred during early September. The diatoms 
(Baci11ariophyceae) became dominant by mid-October and remained dominant 
through the winter. Figure 19 shows the relative abundances of the major 
groups of algae and table 7 lists those genera observed on two or more 
occasions. 


The algae that hamper recreation most are the blue-green algae because 
their great abundances occur when recreation is at a maximum. These forms 
became dominant by June 20 when Anabaena f10s-aquae comprised 92.1 percent 
of the standing crop (table 8). During the initial bloom on July 10, the 
phytoplankton consisted almost entirely of blue-green algae. The average 
concentration was 71,300 cells per mill i1iter. A maximum concentration of 
201,900 cells per milliliter was observed at station 12. 


Anabaena f10s-aquae and Anabaena circinalis were the two most common 
species during the summer. They dominated 79 percent of the collections. 
Aphanizomenon ho1saticum was the dominant species in the other 21 percent 
of the collections. Other abundant blue-green algae included Anabaena 
spiroides , G10eotrichia echinulata , Microcystis aeruqinosa , Microcystis 
incerta aDd Lynqbya Birqei . 


A second bloom was observed on August 22 when the average concentration 
reached 39,700 cells per mill i1iter. The maximum concentration of 94,400 
cells per milliliter was recorded at station 22 in Big Bay. The dominant 
species was Anabaena f10s-aquae . 


Phytoplankton concentrations were never uniform over the entire lake. 
Heavy concentrations in bay areas and localized blooms were quite common. 
In one instance, a bloom consisting entirely of Microcystis aeruqinosa 
reached a concentration of over a million cells per milliliter in Sunset 
Bay, west of Constantia on the north shore. 


Figure 20 shows the longitudinal variations of the mean standing crop 
of phytoplankton during 1967. Cell concentrations were almost always 
heavier in the west end of Oneida Lake. Great concentrations were also 
observed in the open lake east of Shackelton Shoals between stations 
12 and 15. 


- 33 - 



Table 6.--Composite list of algae observed in the phytoplankton of 
Oneida Lake from May 1967 through January 1968 


CHLOROPHYTA 


(A = abundant, C = common, R = rare) 


Actinastrum graci11imum Smith (R) 
Actinastrum Hantzchii Lagerheim (C) 
Ankistrodesmus fa1catus (Corda ) Ra1fs (R) 
Carteria K1ebsi i (Dangeard) (R) 
Cateria sp. (R) 
Characium sp. (R) 
Chlamydomonas sp. (C) 
Ch10rel1a sp. (R) 
Ch10rogonium e10ngatum (Dangeard) "Franze (R) 
Cladophora glomerata (Linnaeus) Kutzing (C) 
Cladophora sp. (R) 
C10sterium Archerianum Cleve (R) 
C10sterium Leib1einii Kutzing (R) 
Coe1astrum microporum Nagel i (R) 
Coronastrum aestiva1e Thompson (R) 
Cosmarium Boeckii Wille (R) 
Cosmarium sp. (R) 
Crucigenia rectangu1aris (Braun) Gay (R) 
Dictyosphaerium pu1che11um Wood (C) 
Eudorina elegans Ehrenberg (C) 
Go1enkinia radiata (Chodat) Willie (R) 
Hydrodictyon reticu1atum (Linnaeus) Lagerheim (R) 
K rchnerie11a 1unaris (Kirchner) Mobius (R) 
M cractinium pusi11um Fresenius (R) 
M crospora Loefgrenii (Nordstedt) Lagerheim (R) 
M crospora stagnorum (Kutzing) Lagerheim (R) 
M crospora Wi11eana Lagerheim (A) 
M crothamnion strictissimum Rabenhorst (R) 
Mougeotia sp. (C) II 
Pandorina morum (Muller) Bory (A) 
Pediastrum biradiatum Meyen (R) 
Pediastrum Boryanum (Turp'in) Meneghini (R) 
Pediastrum duplex Meyen (A) 
P1atydorina caudata Kofoid (R) 
P1eodorina ca1ifornica Shaw (R) 
Scenedesmus arcuatus Lemmermann (R) 
Scenedesmus bi juga (Turpin) Lagerheim (R) 
Scenedesmus longus Meyen (R) 
Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turpin) DeBrebisson (R) 
Sorastrum spinulosum Nage1i (R) 
Sphaerocystis Schroeteri Chodat (C) 
Spi rogyra sp. (R) 
Staurastrum paradoxum Meyen (A) 
Ulothrix aequa1 is Kutzing (R) 
U10thrix subconstricta West (R) 


- 34 - 



Table 6.--Composite list of algae observed in the phytoplankton of 
Oneida Lake from May 1967 through January 1968 
(Continued) 


CHLOROPHYTA (Continued) 
U10thrix variabi1is Kutzing (R) 
Volvox aureus Ehrenberg (R) 


EUGLENOPHYTA 


'p hac u s sp. ( R ) 


CHRYSOPHYTA (including Baci11ariophyceae) 
Asterione11a formosa Hassa11 (A) 
Cyc10te11a sp. (R) 
Cymbe 11 a sp. (R) 
Dinobryon bavaricum Imhof (R) 
Dinobryon cy1indricum Imhof (R) 
Fraqi 1aria sp. (A) 
Fraqi 1aria sp. (C) 
Fragi 1aria sp. (C) 
Gomphonema sp. (R) 
Gyros gma sp. (R) 
Gy ro s gma sp. ( R) 
Me10s ra distans (Ehrenberg) Kutzing (A) 
Me10s ra granu1ata (Ehrenberg) Ralfs (A) 
Me10s ra varians Agardh (A) 
Me 1 0 s ra sp. (C) 
Navicula sp. (R) 
Nitzchia sp. (R) 
Stephanodiscus niaqarae Ehrenberg (C) 
Surie11a sp. (R) 
Synedra sp. (C) 
Synura uvel1a Ehrenberg (R) 
Tabe11aria sp. (C) 
Tabe11aria sp. (C) 


PYRROPHYTA 


CYANOPHYTA 


Ceratium hi run din ell a (M
ller) Schrank (C) 
G1endinium Gymnodinium Penard (R) 
Peridinium cinctum (Muller) Ehrenberg (R) 


Anabaena circina1is Rabenhorst (A) 
Anabaena f10s-aquae (Lyngbye) DeBrebisson (A) 
Anabaena spiroides K1ebahn (A) 
Aphanizomenon ho1saticum Richter (A) 
Chroococcus 1imneticus Lemmermann (C) 
Cy1indrospermum stagna1e (Kutzing) Bornet & F1ahau1t (R) 
Entophysa1is 1emaniae ( Agardh) Drouet & Daily (R) 
G10eotrichia echinu1ata (Smith) Richter (A) 
Lyngbya aestuari i (Mertens) Liebmann (R) 
Lyngbya Birgei Smith (A) 


- 35 - 



Table 6.--Composite list of algae observed in the phytoplankton of 
Oneida Lake from May 1967 through January 1968 
(Continued) 


CYANOPHYTA (Continued) 
Lyngbya contorta Lemmermann (R) 
Lyngbya 1imnetica Lemmermann (R-C) 
Merismopedia e1egans Braun (R) 
Microcystis aeruginosa E1enkin (A) 
Microcystis incerta Lemmermann (A) 
Nostochopsis 10batus Wood (R) 
Osci11atoria 1acustris (K1ebahn) Geit1er (R) 
Osci11atoria 1imnetica Lemmermann (R) 
Osci11atoria 1imnosa (Roth) Agardh (R) 
Osci1Jatoria subbrevis Schmid1e (R) 
Osci11atoria ten ius Agardh (R) 
Pe10g10ea baci11ifera Lauterborn (R) 
Synechococcus aeruginosa Nage1i (C) 


- 36 - 



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EXPLANA TION 


Dominallt type of phytoplankton present 


Blue-green algae 


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Green algae 


, 
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1968 


Figure 18.--Variations of mean standing crop of phytoplankton 
in Oneida Lake. 


- 37 - 



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D. Chrysophyta (incl. diatoms) 


100 


0.1 


1.0 


A. Total phytoplankton 


May 


July 


June 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


Dec. 


Jan. 


1967 


1968 


Figure 19.--Re1ative abundances of the major groups of algae 
comprising the phytoplankton of Oneida Lake. 


Big Bay was the site of first occurrence of blue-green algae on 
June 20, 1967, when 6 of the 16 recorded species were of that type. An 
increase in cell concentrations in the bay preceeded the two major blooms 
and most of the pulses of the phytoplankton population. The extent of 
importance of Big Bay and other bays on the phytoplankton variations in 
the lake is now being investigated. 


The blue-green algae declined with the start of the fall season. Most 
species had disappeared by mid-October and only Anabaena f10s-aquae remained 
by the first of December. Diatoms formed the entire phytoplankton by 
mid-December. 


- 38 - 



Table 7.--Distribution of phytoplankton organisms of Oneida Lake from 
May 30, 1967 through January 17, 1968 


Mar-- a..::t ex:> '" '" N M '" a ..::t 
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Chlorophyta 
Actinastrum x x x x x x x x x x x x 
Anklstrodesmus x x 
Carter I a x x x 
Chlamydomonas x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 
Ch10re11a x x 
Cladophora x x x 
C 10 s te r i um x x 
Coe1astrum x x x 
Coronastrum x x x x 
Cosma r i um x x x x x 
Dlctyosphaerium x x x x x x x x 
E udo r i na x x x 
Micractinium x x 
Microspora x x x x x x x x x x x x P< 
Mouqeotia x x x x x xx 
Pando r i na x x x x x x x x x x x x 
Pediastrum x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 
Scenedesmus x x x x x 
Sphae rocys tis x x x x x x x x x x x 
Spirogyra x x x 
Staurastrum xx x x x x x x x x x x x x x 
U 10th r i x x x x x 
Volvox x x x x 
Chrysophyta 
Asterione11a x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 
Cymbe 1 1 a x x 
Dinobryon x x x x x x 
Fragi 1aria x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 
Gyros i gma x x x 
Me 1 0 s i ra x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 
Navicula x x x x 
Nitzschia x x 
Stephanodiscus x x xx x x x x x x x x x x x x 
Syned ra x x x x x x x x x x x x x 
Synura x x 
Tabe11aria x x x 
Pyrrophyta 
Cerat i um x x x x x x x x x 


- 39 - 



Table 7.--Distribution of phytoplankton organisms of Oneida Lake from 
May 30, 1967 through January 17, 1968 (Continued) 


"" 0 ...... 0 !-::too...... ...... N "" ...... 0 
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Cyanophyta 
Anabaena x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 
Aphanizomenon x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 
Chroococcus x x x x x x x x 
Entophysalls x x x x 
G I oeot rich I a x x x x x x x x x x x x 
Lyngbya x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 
Microcystis x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 
o sc i 11 a to ria x x x x x x 
Pe10g10ea x x 
Synechococcus x x x x x x 


- 40 - 



Table 8.--Dominant phytoplankton organisms of Oneida Lake from 
May 30, 1967 through January 17, 1968 


(Approximate values represent cells per milliliter 
and percent of standing crop) 


May 30, 1967 
U10thrix 1,600, 44.7%; Lyngbya 660, 18.1%; Asterione11a 460, 12.8%; 
Fragi 1aria 440, 12.1%. 


June 6, 1967 
Sphaerocystis 1,300, 76.0%; Coe1astrum 260, 15.4%; Asterione11a 150, 
8.6% 


June 13, 1967 
Sphaerocystis 4,400, 93.6%; Melosira 200, 4.2%. 


June 20, 1967 
Anabaena 16,200, 92.1%; Sphaerocystis 1,200, 6.9%; Melosira 110, 0.6%. 


June 27, 1967 
Anabaena 11,400, 87.7%; Microcystis colonies; Sphaerocystis 900, 5.5%; 
G10eotrichia colonies. 


July 6, 1967 
Anabaena 14,900, 79.0%; Aphanizomenon 1,140, 6.2%; G10eotrichia 
colonies; Microcystis colonies; Coelastrum 240, 1.3%. 


July 10, 1967 
Anabaena 49,000, 71.1%; Aphanizomenon 19,900, 28.5%; G10eotrichia 
colonies; Microcystis colonies; Synechococcus 150, 0.2%. 


July 14, 1967 
Aphanizomenon 6,850, 45.4%; G10eotrichia colonies; Anabaena 
6,670, 44.3%; Microcystis colonies; Melosira 630, 4.2%. 


July 18, 1967 
Anabaena 10,500,44.6%; Aphanizomenon 9,700,41.2%; G10etrichia 
colonies; Microcystis colonies; Melosira 1,350, 5.7%. 


July 27, 1967 
Anabaena 11,900, 50.7%; Gloeotrichia colonies; Aphanizomenon 6,500, 
27.7%; Microcystis colonies; Pandorina 900, 10.7%. 


August 1, 1967 
Anabaena 14,900, 63.8%; Aphanizomenon 6,200, 26.8%; Pandorina 500, 
2.3%; Microcystis colonies. 


August 9, 1967 
Aphanizomenon 11,350, 63.0%; Anabaena 6,100, 27.7%; Microcystis 
colonies; Dictyosphaerium 650, 2.9%. 


- 41 - 



Table 8.--Dominant phytoplankton organisms of Oneida Lake from 
May 30, 1967 through January 17, 1968 (Continued) 


August 17, 1967 
Aphanizomenon 10,900, 55.2%; Anabaena 8,360, 42.3%; Microcystis 
colonies; Pandorina 830, 4.2%. 


August 22, 1967 
Anabaena 19,700, 49.3%; Aphanizomenon 16,900, 42.2%; Microcvstis 
colonies; Fraqi1aria 100,2.7%. 


September 13, 1967 
Anabaena 12,300, 46.0%; Aphanizomenon 7,900, 29.4%; Microcvstis 
colonies; Melosira 360, 15.8%; Fraqi1aria 160, 6.7%. 


September 27, 1967 
Anabaena 490, 46.3%; Melosira 190, 18.6%; Fraqi1aria 100, 9.5% 
Aphanizomenon 90, 8.rlo. 


October 9, 1967 
Anabaena 560,41.5%; Fraqi1aria 410, 30.9%; Melosira 100, 15.8%; 
Aphanizomenon 70, 11.1%. 


October 30, 1967 
Melosira 200, 56.5%; Anabaena 80, 22.5%; Fraqi1aria 50, 19.8%. 
December 4, 1967 
Melosira 200, 80.
1o; Anabaena 40, 16.0%. 


January 17, 1968 
Melosira 25, 50.0%; Synedra 25, 50.
1o. 


- 42 - 



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Figure 20.--Longitudina1 variations in the mean standing 
crop of phytoplankton during 1967. 


Although the number of diatoms decreased during the summer, they were 
present during the entire year. The persistent species were Asterione11a 
formosa , Fragi1aria sp., Melosira distans , Melosira granu1ata and Melosira 
varians . Tabe11aria sp. appeared during the winter. 


Commonly occurring green algae included Pediastrum duplex , Microspora 
Wi11eana , Pandorina morum and Staurastrum paradoxum . Ceratium hirundine11a , 
a dinoflagellate of Pyrrophyta, was common during the spring, summer, and 
fall. 


- 43 - 



CHEMISTRY OF ONEIDA LAKE 


Methods of Routine Investigations 


The biweekly co11ection of water samples for chemical analyses started 
in June, 1967. Samples were obtained routinely at stations 8 through 22 
(fig. 17) and filtered with a water sample filtration unit (Skougstad and 
Scarbro, 1968) through a 0.45 micron membrane filter. Periodic unfiltered 
samples also were obtained. 


Samples for the determination of nitrogen species (for example, 
nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and organic nitrogen) were preserved with 
mercuric chloride (HgC1 2 ). Samples for phosphate analysis were stored 
in glass citrate bottles. 


All samples were returned to the U.S. Geological Survey laboratory in 
Albany for processing. Standard chemical methods were used (American Public 
Health Association, 1965 or Rainwater and Thatcher, 1960). The following 
constituents were determined: silicon dioxide (Si0 2 ), calcium (Ca,) 
magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K), bicarbonate (HC0 3 ), carbonate 
(C0 3 ), fluoride (F), nitrate (N03), nitrite (N0 2 ), ammonia (NH3), organic 
nitrogen (org-N), total phosphate (tot-P0 4 ) and dissolved solids (DS). 


In situ measurements for dissolved oxygen, water temperature and 
specifi c cond uctance were made during each visit to a sampling station. 
Field measurements for pH and alkalinity were made intermittently. 


Periodic water samples were obtained at station 12 for the spectro- 
graphic analysis for trace elements. The analyses were made by the U.S. 

eol
gica1 Survey laboratory in Denver, C
30rado, and results were reported 
In micrograms per liter (
g/l = mgl1 x 10 ). 


Secchi disc readings for determining the relative extent of light 
penetration were taken routinely at stations 12 and 20 according to the 
method of Welch (1948). 


Special Studies 


As with biological investigations, several special chemical studies 
have been and are being made in addition to routine sampling. The results 
of these studies and a comprehensive evaluation of the chemical cycles and 
interactions within Oneida Lake will be included in the final report. A 
list of some of the special chemical studies follows: 


1. A map of bottom sediments indicating type, distribution and 
chemical quality is being prepared. 


2. Data from routine chemical samples, from the geochemical investi- 
gation of the drainage basin, from the chemical 
va1uation of 
various biological groups, and from the chemical quality of 
sediments will form the basis for establishing nutrient cycles 
within the lake. 


- 
 - 



3. Daily and hourly samples are being collected prior to and during 
bloom conditions to determine the influence of phytoplankton 
productivity on the chemical quality of the water and vice versa . 


4. Efforts are being made to determine the sources of trace element 
contributions into the lake. 


Nutrients 


General 


Oneida Lake lies within a fertile drainage basin. According to Pearson 
and Meyers (1969), on an average day in 1967 about 1,250 tons (about 1,130 
metric tons) of dissolved solids (DS) were carried into the lake by surface 
streams. Ten to 15 percent, or about 150 tons per day (about 135 metric 
tons) of these materials were retained or entrapped within the lake. 
Because the streams of the basin contain primarily calcium sulfate bicar- 
bonate water, a large part of the dissolved sol ids flowing into the lake is 
of nutritional value. 


The cycling of individual nutrients within a lake system is poorly 
understood. Part of the nutrients become incorporated into living matter 
(for example, phytoplankton, zooplankton, vascular plants, and fish) and 
upon death and decay of the organism, the nutrients are liberated for reuse. 
Part of the nutrients remain in solution, while some become permanently 
incorporated within the bottom sediments or flow out of the lake. Attempts 
are now being made to define, at least partially, these cycles of inorganic 
nutrients in Oneida Lake, and, as previously stated, the results of this 
study will be included in the final report. 


Nutrients accumulate within a lake and, after a period of years, become 
available in concentrations sufficient to support algal blooms. Table 2 
shows the essential elements of algae and the respective minimum required 
concentrations. Table 9 shows the mean concentrations of dissolved essential 
elements in Oneida Lake for the period of May 1967 through March 1968. 


All but four of these elements exhibited more than adequate quantities 
for algal nutrition, according to findings reported in the literature. 
Observed copper (Cu) and sodium (Na) concentrations were equal to reported 
minimum requirements, but boron (B) and cobalt (Co) were considerably below 
the minimum. The mean concentrations of these latter two elements were 
0.025 mgl1 and <0.003 mgl1, respectively, as compared with the estimated 
minimum requirements of 0.1 mgl1 and 0.5 mg/1, respectively. The observed 
low concentrations of boron and cobalt had no perceptible effect on the 
phytoplankton. 


Of those studied, no particular element, ion or compound appeared to 
be a limiting factor on the growth processes of algae or the extent of 
bloom formation in Oneida Lake. Even during the large bloom on July 10, 
mean concentrations of nutrients dissolved in the water were above the 
minimum requirements for the healthy existence of phytoplankton. Variations 
in concentrations of dissolved nutrients cannot be correlated, at present, 
with changes in the phytoplankton population. 


- 45 - 



Table 9.--Essentia1 elements in Oneida Lake. Values represent mean 
concentrations at station 12 for the period of 

y 1967 through March 1968 
Chemical Mean value Chemical 
Element form (m 11 Element form 
Aluminum A1 0.035 Nitrogen Total as N 
Boron B .025 N03 .6 
Calcium Ca 38 N0 2 .01 
Ca rbon NH4 . 11 
Chlorine C1 9 Organic N . 14 
Cobalt Co < .003 Oxygen 
Copper Cu .006 Phosphorus Total P0 4 . 18 
Hydrogen Po ta s s i um K .9 
Iron Fe .041 S i 1 icon Si0 2 2.5 
Magnesium Mg 8.6 Sodium Na 5 
Manganese Mn .022 Sulphur S04 48 
Molybdenum Mo <.0006 Vanadium V <.003 
Zinc Zn <.015 


Table 10 summarizes the results of the chemical investigation of Oneida 
Lake by showing the biweekly mean values of the chemical constituents from 
June, 1967 to May, 1968. Table 11 shows the concentrations of various trace 
elements at station 12. 


Nitrogen and Phosphorus 


Nitrogen and phosphorus have long been considered to be key elements 
required by phytoplankton. In many lakes, the concentrations of these two 
nutrients are vitally important in controlling the extent of biological 
productivity. When concentrations are high, algal blooms generally occur, 
whereas, when concentrations are low, no problems of productivity are 
experienced. 


- 46 - 



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- 48 - 


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The minimum requirements for nitrogen and phosphorus by algae in the 
natural environment are topics of debate, because little is known about their 
roles (cycles) in lake systems. The discrepancies are reflected in table 2 
by the wide range of minimum requirements as reported in the literature. 


The values of 0.30 mg/1 for nitrogen and 0.01 mg/1 for phosphorus, 
generally are considered to be closest to the actual minimum requirements. 
Sawyer (1947) stated that when concentrations exceeded these values, nuisance 
conditions could be expected. 


In Oneida Lake, the mean concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus 
during May, 1967 through March 1968 were 0.36 mgll and 0.18 mg/1, respectively. 
During the initial bloom of July 10, mean concentrations were 0.39 mg/1 and 
0.10 mg/1, respectively, quite adequate to support algal blooms. 


Figures 21, 22, and 23 show the mean variations of total dissolved 
nitrogen, total dissolved phosphate and various nitrogen species in Oneida 
Lake during the first year of study. 


Spatial Variations 


The dissolved nutrients of Oneida Lake were essentially uniform in 
concentration, both vertically and area11y; only subtle differences were 
detected during the first year of study. Upon entering the lake, waters 
from the tributaries are subjected to the ever present winds and are mixed 
almost immediately. 


During periods of dissolved oxygen stratification, concentrations of 
dissolved nutrients were only very slightly higher in the near-anerobic layer 
of water at the bottom (below 30 ft in depth). Table 12 shows the mean 
differences. 


Because there were no appreciable vertical variations in dissolved 
nutrients, chemical reduction in the lower layers of water was most 1 ike1y 
of minor significance during 1967. Investigations are now being made to 
determine the exact role of chemical reduction on the nutrient cycles in the 
lake. 


Significantly larger amounts of only the ammonium ion and total dissolved 
phosphate were noted in the deep zone. In both cases, the increased amounts 
were probably due to bacterial and biochemical decomposition of organic 
materials. 


Maximum differences in dissolved nutrients between the surface and bottom 
were recorded on August 17. Winds of up to 18 mph (8 m per sec) on August 
19 (U.S. Department of Commerce, 1967) mixed the waters of the lake and replen- 
ished nutrients for reuse by the phytoplankton. The result was the second 
major algal bloom on August 22. 


During periods when the lake did not stratify, concentrations of 
dissolved materials were essentially uniform through the entire water column. 


- 49 - 



0.9 
0.8 A. Total dissolved nitrogen (as N) 
0,7 
0, 

 
(j:; 0.5 
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E 

 
OJ 
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0.2 
0.1 
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Oct. 


Dec. 


Jan. 


Feb. Mar. 
1968 


Apr. 


Figure 21.--Mean variations of total nitrogen and total phosphate in 
Oneida Lake. 


- 50 - 



3,0 


2 


A. Nitrate nitrogen (as N03) 


-= 2.0 
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Aug 


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May June 


July 


Oct 


Nov 


Dec 


Jan 


Apr 


1967 


1968 


Figure 22.--Mean variation of nitrate nitrogen and nitrite nitrogen 
in Oneida Lake. 


The average Secchi disc reading during 1967 was 6.21 feet (1.89 meters). 
Readings ranged from 5.06 feet (1.54 meters) to 8.67 feet (2.64 meters). 
Greater depths were recorded in the open lake at station 12 and lesser depths 
were observed at the western end of the lake at station 21; the mean readings 
were 6.81 feet (2.08 meters) and 5.62 feet (1.71 meters), respectively. 


Areal variations of dissolved nutrients were minimal. Slightly higher 
concentrations were recorded at the western stations (numbers 17 through 22). 
The lowest concentrations of specific nutrients were observed at station 9, 
resulting from the inflow of low-mineralized water in Fish Creek from the 
north and northeast. Table 13 shows the mean concentrations of chemical 
factors for each of the sampling stations. 


- 51 - 



2 0.8 


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0.\ 


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Mar. 


Apr. 


May 


June 


Aug 


Dec. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Jan. 


1967 


1968 


Figure 23.--Mean variations of ammonia nitrogen and organic nitrogen 
in Oneida Lake. 


- 52 - 



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SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 


A 5-year study of the annual nuisance algal blooms of Oneida Lake was 
begun in April, 1967 by the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, 
in cooperation with the Division of Water Resources of the New York State 
Department of Conservation. 


The objectives of the study are to examine critically Oneida Lake and 
its drainage basin in terms of a dynamic system --- one of causes and effects. 
The study attempts to define those chemical and physical conditions of the 
lake system that appear to give rise to, or be associated with, the various 
biological phases that are of importance; and, ultimately, to present the 
necessary interpretations upon which a proper lake management program can be 
based. 


This interim report describes the general concepts of lake eutrophication 
and reports the activities of the first year of field investigations. 


The following summaries and conclusions are made within the framework of 
existing knowledge: 


1. Oneida Lake is a eutrophic lake which has been in existence for 
about 10,000 years. The fertile drainage basin of the lake was 
once the bottom of an inland fresh-water sea, and drainage from 
this area brings into the lake an abundance of soluble minerals 
and dissolved organic materials. 


2. Oneida Lake has become eutrophic through natural events. The 
nutrients entering the lake from natural sources alone appear 
to be of sufficient quantity to support the annual algal blooms. 


3. The lake has been eutrophic for at least 350 years. This is 
apparent from the description by early settlers that the algae 
observed in the lake were of a bloom-forming type. These same 
forms are still evident in Oneida Lake today. 


4. Oneida Lake does not stratify thermally during the summer but 
did exhibit near-anaerobic conditions in the lower layers of 
water during the growing season of 1967. A sharp disso1ved- 
oxygen stratification at about 30 feet accompanied the increase 
in phytoplankton productivity in the upper layers of water. 


5. One of the most influential factors among the processes within 
the lake is wind-generated wave action. Prevailing westerly 
winds can create a maximum wave height exceeding 6 feet on 
Oneida Lake, with effective mixing to a depth of about 30 feet. 


6. The importance of nutrient-rich bottom sediments as a continual 
source of dissolved materials within the lake is greatly 
accentuated. Sixty-five percent of the lake bottom is shallower 
than 30 feet and can be subjected to mixing with the overlying 
water. 


- 55 - 



7. Seiches are quite common in the lake and assist in the horizontal 
transfer of nutrient materials. The vertical displacement of 
water may exceed 1.6 feet during a period of about 2.4 hours. 


8. Higher aquatic plants and benthic algae are common in Oneida 
Lake. They are a potential source of future "productivity" 
problems if and when the phytoplankton populations are 
con t ro J 1 ed . 


9. Anabaena f10s-aquae , a blue-green alga, was the dominant species 
of bloom-forming algae in 79 percent of the collections. 


10. Other important bloom-forming blue-green algae included 
Aphanizomenon holsaticum , Anabaena circina1is , Anabaena spiroides , 
Microcystis aeruqinosa , Microcystis incerta , G10eotrichia 
echinu1ata and Lynqbya Birqei . 


11. Algal concentrations were never uniform over the entire lake. 
Bay areas and shoal areas often were sites of localized blooms. 


12. No particular nutrient appeared to be a limiting factor on the 
growth processes of algae or the extent of bloom formations in 
One i da Lake. 


13. The concentrations of nutrients dissolved in the waters of Oneida 
Lake were more than adequate for the hea1thy.existence of 
phytoplankton, even during large algal blooms. Nitrogen and 
phosporus never approached growth-limiting concentrations. 


14. The dissolved nutrients of the lake were essentially uniform in 
concentrations, both verticaJ1y and areaJ1y. Slightly higher 
values were reported for the western end of the lake and in the 
deeper layers of water during periods of dissolved oxygen 
stratification. 


15. The four most important factors affecting the processes in Oneida 
Lake are: (1) high fertility of the drainage basin, (2) the 
physical position and shallowness of the lake, (3) mixing as 
caused by wind, and (4) fertility of the bottom sediments. 


- 56 - 



GLOSSARY 


ALGAE: the group of simple or primitive plants that generally are micro- 
scopic in size and live in wet or damp places. 


ALGAL BLOOM: the relatively rapid increase in the total number of 
phytoplankton per unit time to the extent that their presence hinders 
the utility of a body of water for whatever the intended use. 


ANAEROBIC: devoid of oxygen. 


BENTHIC ALGAE: algae which grow in or on the bottom. 


BENTHOS: organisms that live in or on the bottom of a body of water. 


BIOLOGICAL GRAZERS: animal organisms that feed on vegetation; herbivores. 


BLOOM: (see Algal Bloom). 


CHEMICAL CYCLE: the circular path of an element in its various combinations 
from the environment to the organism and back to the environment. 


CHEMICAL REDUCTION: the addition of hydrogen to or the subtraction of 
oxygen from a substance; a reaction opposite to the chemical oxidation. 


DEVELOPMENT OF SHORELINE: the uniformity index of the shoreline. The index 
of 1 represents a circle. 


DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUME: the uniformity index of volume. The index of 1 
represents a cone. 


DIATOMS: a group of algae characterized by a cell wall of pectic materials 
impregnated with silica, giving it a glass-like appearance and texture. 


DRAINAGE AREA: the land and water surfaces from which a lake derives its 
inflow of water. 


DRAINAGE BASIN: (see Drainage Area). 


ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION: the gradual progression from one life stage into 
another. 


ENRICHMENT: the addition or accumulation of nutrients within a body of water. 


EPILIMNION: the upper layer of water during periods of thermal stratification 
in a lake. 


ESSENTIAL ELEMENT: any element which in some chemical form is required for 
the nutrition of an organism. 


EUTROPHICATION: the natural process of aging of a body of water through 
ecological succession and enrichment. 


- 57 - 



· GLOSSARY (Continued) 


EUTROPHIC LAKE: a lake having an abundant amount of dissolved nutrients. 


FETCH: the uninterrupted, straight-line distance from the shore to the 
point of interest; usually associated with wave formation. 


FILAMENTOUS ALGAE: thread-like forms of algae having a linear arrangement 
of cells. These forms are generally macroscopic and benthic. 


FLOW-THROUGH TIME: the time necessary for the volume of a lake to be 
replaced by inf10wing water, assuming that there is a complete mixing 
of the lake water. 


GEOCHEMISTRY: the science of the chemical characteristics and properties 
of the earth. 


HIGHER PLANTS: (see Vascular Plants). 


HOMOTHERMOUS: uniform or equal in temperature. 


HYDROGRAPHIC MAP: a chart of the lake bottom indicating various depth 
contours. 


HYDROLOGY: the earth science that relates to the occurrence of water in the 
earth, its physical and chemical reactions with the rest of the earth, 
and its relation to living organisms. 


HYPOLIMNION: the bottom layer of water during period of thermal strati- 
fication in a lake. 


LENGTH: the long axis of a lake. 


LIMITING FACTOR: any substance or condition that approaches or exceeds the 
upper or lower tolerance limits of an organism. 


LIMNOLOGY: the science of fresh waters, especially of ponds and lakes, 
including the physical, chemical, and biological conditions. 


LONG AXIS: the greatest length of a lake. 


MACROBENTHOS: large, nonmicroscopic organisms that live in or on the bottom 
of a body of water. 


MACROMETABOLITE: a nutrient that is required in relatively large quantities. 


MESOTROPHIC LAKE: a lake with a moderate content of dissolved nutrients. 


MICROMETABOLITE: a nutrient that is required in relatively small or trace 
quantities. 


- 58 - 



GLOSSARY (Continued) 


NUTRIENT: any substance that is required by an organism for the continu- 
ation of growth, for repair of tissue, or for reproduction. 


OLIGOTROPHIC LAKE: a lake with a low content of dissolved nutrients. 


ORGANISM: a living plant or animal. 


PHYTOPLANKTON: plant organisms of the plankton. 


PLANKTON: passively floating or weakly swimming aquatic organisms of 
.re1ative1y small size that are at the mercy of the water currents. 


PREVAILING WINDS: the average or normal winds. 


PRIMARY PRODUCERS: the plant organisms that utilize dissolved nutrients 
directly from the water. 


PRODUCTIVITY: the total amount of organic matter that is formed from raw 
ma te ri a 1 s . 


SEDIMENTATION: the deposition of suspended or dissolved materials on the 
bottom of a lake or stream. 


SEICHE: the oscillation of water about one or more node1 points within a 
lake. It is a local ized and periodic shift of the water level in 
which the water particles advance and return in the same path. 


SHOAL: (see Shoa 1 Area). 


SHOAL AREA; the part of the lake that is shallower than 14 feet in depth. 


SHORELINE: the margin of land surrounding the lake surface. 


STAGE: the elevation of the surface of a body of water. 


STANDING CROP: the total quantity of living material at any moment in time. 


STANDING WAVE: (see Seiche). 


SUMMER STAGNATION PERIOD: the period of thermal stratification in a lake 
when the hypolimnion is anaerobic. 


SURFACE AREA: the expanse of the lake surface. 


THERMAL RESISTANCE: the resistance to mixing because of thermally-produced 
density differences between the upper and lower layers of water. 


THERMAL STRATIFICATION: the distinct layering of a body of water because 
of ,thermal differences. 


- 59 - 



GLOSSARY (Continued) 


THERMOCLINE: the layer of water between the epi1imnion and the hypolimnion 
where the temperature rapidly dec1 ines per unit depth from the upper 
margin to the lower margin. 


TRACE ELEMENT: an element that exists in very minute quantities in the 
environment. 


VASCULAR PLANTS: highly developed plants with a water conducting system. 
Generally, those plants with leaves, stems, and roots. 


VERNAL: of or in the spring. 


VERNAL PULSE: the increase in stand1ng crop of plankton during the spring 
season. 


VOLUME: the amount or quantity of water in a lake. 


WATER COLUMN: the vertical profile in a lake from surface to bottom. 


WATERSHED: (see Drainage Area). 


WAVE HEIGHT: the maximum vertical distance between crest and trough of a 
wave. 


WAVE LENGTH: the linear distance from crest to crest or from trough to 
trough between successive waves. 


WAVE OF OSCILLATION: the vertical rise and fall of the water at successive 
positions in which the water particles move in a circular path. 


WIDTH: the short axis of a lake. 


ZOOPLANKTON: animal organisms of the plankton. 


- 60 - 



REFERENCES 


Allen, M. B. and Arnon, D. 1.,1955, Studies on nitrogen-fixing b1ue- 
green algae. I. Growth and nitrogen fixation by Anabaena cy1indrica 
Lemm.: Plant Physio1., v. 30, p. 366-372. 


American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, 
and Water Pollution Control Federation, 1965, Standard Methods for the 
Examination of Water and Wastewater Including Bottom Sediments and 
Sludges, 12th Edition: New York, Am. Public Health Assoc., 769 p. 


Baker, F. C., 1916, The relation of mollusks to fish in Oneida Lake, 
New York: New York State College of Forestry Techo Pub. no. 4, 
366 p. 


1918, The productivity of invertebrate fish food on the bottom of 
Oneida Lake, with special reference to mollusks: New York State 
College of Forestry Tech. Pub. no. 9, 264 p. 


Benoit, R. J. and Curry, J. J., 1961, Algae blooms in Lake Zoar, 
Connecticut, in Algae and metropolitan Wastes: U.S. Public Health 
Service Tech.
ept. W61-3, p. 18-22. 


Birge, E. A. and Juday, C., 1922, The inland lakes of Wisconsin. The 
plankton. I. Its quantity and chemical composition: Wisc. Geol. and 
Nat. Hi story Survey Bull., v. 64, no. 13, p. 1-222. 


" Ii /. 
Borte1s, H., 1940, Uber die Bedeutung des Mo1ybdans fur stickstoffbinden- 
dene Nostocaceen: Archives des Mikrobio1. v. 11, p. 155-186. 


Buddhari, W., 1960, Cobalt as an essential element for blue-green algae: 
Doctoral Dissertation, Univ. Calif., Berkeley. 


Chu, S. P., 1943, The influence of the mineral composition of the medium 
on the growth of planktonic algae. I I. The influence of the 
concentration of inorganic nitrogen and phosphate phosphorus; Jour. 
Ecol. v. 31, no. 2, p. 109-148. 


Cobb, H. D. and Meyers, Jo, 1964, Comparative studies of nitrogen 
fixation and photosynthesis in Anabaena cy1indrica : Am. Jour. Botany, 
v. 51, p. 753-762. 


Dapples, E. C., 1959, Basic Geology for Science and Engineering: New 
York, John Wiley & Sons, 609 p. 


Eyster, C., 1965, Micronutrient requirements for green plants, especially 
algae, 
 Algae and Man, D. F. Jackson (Ed.): New York Pymatuning 
Press, p. 86-119. 


Fogg, C. E., 1966, Algal Cultures and Phytoplankton Ecology: Madison 
Univ. Wisc. Press, 126 p. 


- 61 - 



REFERENCES (Continued) 


Fruh, Eo G., 1967, The overall picture of eutrophication: Jouro Water 
Pollution Control Fedo, v. 39, no. 9, p. 1,449-1,463. 


Gerloff, Go C. and Skogg, Fo, 1954, Cell content of nitrogen and 
phosphorus as a measure of their availability for growth of Microcystis 
aeruqinosa : Ecology, v. 35, no. 3, p. 348-353. 


1957, Availability of iron and manganese in southern Wisconsin 
lakes for the growth of Microcystis aeruqinosa : Ecology, v. 38, 
no. 4, p. 551-556. 


Hasler, A. D., 1947, Eutrophication of lakes by domestic drainage: 
Ecology, v. 28, no. 4, p. 383-395. 


Hutchinson, G. E., 1957, A Treatise of Limnology, vol. 10 Geography, 
Physics, and Chemistry: New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1,015 p. 


Karrow, P. F., Clarke, J. P., and Terasmae, Jr., 1961, The age of Lake 
Iroquois and Lake Ontario: Jour. Geo1., v. 69, p. 659-667. 


Kratz, W. A. and Myers, J., 1955, Nutrition and growth of several b1ue- 
green algae: Am. Jour. Botany, v. 42, p. 282-287. 


Krauss, R. W., 1956, Photosynthesis in the algae: Indus. and Eng. Chem., 
v. 48, p . 1, 449 - 1 , 458 . 


Levin, G. V., 1960, Sodium chloride uptake by algae: Public Waters, 
v. 91, p. 7 & 95. 


Lund, J. W. G., 1950, Studies on Asterione11a formosa Hass. II. Nutrient 
depletion and the spring maximum: Jour. Ecology, v. 38, p. 1-35. 


1954, The seasonal cycle of the plankton diatoms, Melosira Ita1ica 
(Ehr.) Kutz, subsp. Subartica O. Mull.: Jour. Ecology, v. 42, 
p. 151-179. 


" 
Meyer, B. S., Anderson, D. B., and Bohning, R. H., 1964, Introduction to 
Plant Physiology: Princeton, N.J., D. Van Nostrand Co., 541 p. 


Mi 11er, W. E. and Tash, J. C., 1967, Interim report: Upper Klamath Lake 
studies, Oregon: Fed. Water Pollution Control Admin. Pub. WP-20-8, 
37 p. 


Muller, E. H., 1965, Quaternary geology of New York 
 The Quaternary of 
the United States, Wright, H. E., Jr., and Frey, D. G. (Eds.): 
Princeton, N.J., Princeton Univ. Press, 922 p. 


New York Conservation Department, 1947, Oneida Lake: Conservationist, 
v. 1, no. 3, p. 8- 11. 


- 62 - 



REFERENCES (Continued) 


Palmer, C. M., 1967, Environmental needs of nuisance algal forms: Albany, 
New York, 4th Annual Water Quality Symposium, p. 8-35. 


Pearsall, W. H., 1932, Phytoplankton in the English lakes. 2. The 
composition of the phytoplankton in relation to dissolved substances: 
Jour. Ecology, v. 20, p. 241-262. 


Pearson, F. J., Jr., and Meyers, G. S., 1969, Hydrochemistry of the Oneida 
Lake basin: New York State Water Resources Comm. Rept. of Inv. (In 
preparation) . 


Phi 11 ips, K. N., Newcomb, R. C., Swenson, H. A., and Lai rd, L. B., 1965, 
Water for Oregon: U.S. Geo1. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1649, 150 p. 


Pirson, A., 1937, Ernahrungs- und stoffwechse1physio10gische Unter-suchungen 
an Fontina1is und Ch10re11a z.: Botani10gica, v. 31, p. 193-267. 


Prescott, G. W., 1962, Algae of the Western Great Lakes Area, With an 
Illustrated Key to the Genera of Desmids and Freshwater Diatoms: 
Dubuque, Iowa, Wm. C. Brown Co., 977 p. 


Provaso1i, L., 1958, Nutrition and ecology of Protozoa and algae: Ann. 
Rev. M i c rob i 0 1 ., v. 12, p. 279-303. 


Provaso1 i, L., and Pinter, J. J., 1963, Ecological impl ications of l!:!. vitro 
nutritional requirements of algal flagellates: Ann. New York Acad. Sci., 
v. 56, p. 839-851. 


Rainwater, F. H., and Thatcher, L. L., 1960, Methods for collection and 
analysis of water samples: U.S. Geo1. Survey Water-Supply Paper 1454, 
301 p. 


Rawson, D. S., 1956, Algal indicators of trophic lake types: Limno1. and 
Oceanogr., v. 1, no. 1, p. 18-25. 


Rodhe, W., 1949, Environmental requirements of fresh-water plankton algae: 
Symbo1ae Botanicae Upsa1ienses, v. 10, p. 1-149. 


Ryther, J. H., and Kramer, D. D., 1961, Relative iron requirements of some 
coastal and offshore plankton algae: Ecology, v. 42, no. 2, p. 444-446. 


Sarles, W. B., 1961, Madison lakes: Must urbanization destroy their beauty 
and productivity?, 
 Algae and Metropolitan Wastes: U.S. Public Health 
Service Tech. Pub. W61-3, pp. 10-18. 


Sawyer, C. N., 1947, Fertilization of lakes by agricultural and urban 
drainage: New England Water Works Assoc. Jour., v. 61, no. 2. 


- 63 - 



REFERENCES (Continued) 


Sche1ske, C. L., 1962, iron, organic matter, and other factors limiting 
primary productivity in a marl lake: Science, v. 136, no. 3510, p. 45-46. 


Shannon, J. E., 1965, Nutrient requirements for aquatic plants. Part I.: 
Water Chemistry Seminar, Univ. of Wisc. Madison. 


Skougstad, M. W., and G. F. Scarbro, Jr., 1968, Water sample filtration 
unit: Environ. Sci. & Tech., v. 2, no. 4, p. 298-301. 


Stevenson, T., 1852, Observations on the relation between height of waves 
and their distance from the windward shore: Edinb. New Phil. Jour., 
v. 53, p. 358-359. 


Sverdrup, H. U., M. W. Johnson and R. H. Fleming, 1942, The Oceans: Their 
Physics, Chemistry and General Biology: Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 
N. J., 1 087 p. 


u.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1964, New York State Barge Canal System, 
Cayuga-Seneca, Oswego, Erie and Champlain Canals: U.S. Lake Survey 
Chart no. 180. 


u.S. Department of Commerce, 1967, Local climatological data: Syracuse, 
New York, Hancock Field: u.S. Department of Commerce, Environ. Data 
Se r vice, 1 2 p. 


u.S. Geological Survey, 1967, Water resources data for New York. Part I. 
Surface water records for 1966: u.S. Geo1. Survey, Albany, New York 
363 p. 


Walker, J. B., 1953, Inorganic micronutrient requirements of Ch10re11a . 
I. Requir-ements for calcium (or strontium), copper and molybdenum: 
Arch. Biochem. & Biophysics, v. 46, p. 1-11. 


Welch, P. S., 1948, Limno10gica1 Methods: McGraw-Hill, New York, 381 p. 


1952, Limnology, 2nd Edition: McGraw-Hill, New York, 538 p. 


Wright, H. E., Jr., and D. G. Frey (Eds.), 1965, The Quaternary of the 
United States: Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, N. J., 922 p. 


- 64 - 





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